POST GRADUATE EDUCATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION

In 1992 a law was passed to `reform of higher education (The Further and Higher Education Act) which eliminated the distinction between universities and polytechnics and institutes of higher education`. The new system has allowed all banks to obtain permission to `give their own” Degree “(diplomas and certificates) and to add their name to the title” university “, provided they are guaranteed certain educational standards.

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ORGANIZATION OF STUDIES
The UK consists of four countries (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland): d `education systems differ slightly, especially in terminology, but are broadly similar.
Throughout the United Kingdom `s compulsory education ends at the age of 16 years with the GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education (called Standard Grades in Scotland). At this point, the Tertiary Education (Tertiary Education) by 16 years, not mandatory. About 90% of students continuing their studies until graduation requirements for the `university enrollment at the age of 18 years are achieved at secondary schools or vocational training institutions (further education colleges), after which the student follows the Advanced Levels required for admission university. The General Certificate of Education Advanced Level is commonly known as A level, is supported by students with a good curriculum. Usually students specializing in humanities or science and two or more subjects exceeded this level are required for admission under the university.

There are also the AS-levels (Advanced Supplementary), introduced in 1987 to expand the range of GCSE subjects offered by more than the traditional division between science and humanities studies to combine very different.
As an alternative to Advanced, some schools prepared to `International Baccalaureate (IB) examination recognized internationally, allegedly at the age of 18 years and allows the` admission to universities.
Have recently been some new skills and schools now offer an alternative also a Certificate of Advanced Vocational Education (Advanced Vocational Certificate in Education, known as AVCE).
It should be noted that in Scotland `s education system is very different, in fact most students finish secondary school at the age of 17/18 years after obtaining the so-called Highers or Advanced Highers, the Scottish upper secondary education certificates that allow `access to the university and are equivalent to GCE A-levels.

`An alternative to university study is represented by vocational training in the United Kingdom is based on the national system of vocational qualifications (NVQs, National Vocation Qualifications).
Vocational training is imparted in the form of full-time courses at institutes of adult education (Further Education College), or training in the workplace with the recognition of `work experience gained, or courses of study to a parallel `part-time employment, or even night classes. Starting From the 2004/2005 school year are also activated the New Technologies Institutes (NTI), consortia formed by universities, further education colleges and private sector organizations that offer a range of courses, including at top, connected to the world local labor.

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University education (Higher Education – HE) is offered by two types of institutions: universities, autonomous bodies with the authority to establish and issue academic degrees, and colleges and institutes of higher education (in Scotland called Scottish centrally-funded institutions) that offer different diplomas through collaborative arrangements with universities. Of this type are known as Foundation Degrees, established in 2001 to meet the needs of technical expertise from the labor market (the courses are designed in collaboration with the employers). The courses last two years, with an additional year of study you get the `honors degree, a qualification equivalent to university level.
The degrees that can be achieved with higher education are called `Degree and are of two levels: first degree (First or Undergraduate Degree) issued usually with the title of Bachelor (in Scotland generally have a Master’s degree) and master’s degree (commonly called Master).
Most first degree courses in England, Northern Ireland and Wales have a duration of three years and involve specialization in a field of study (honors degree) or more subjects in less depth (combined honors degree ) or integrated courses at least one year of work experience, so-called Sandwich Course, in which “sandwich” is for “placement” to play an `industry or abroad.
In Scotland many courses require at least four years of full-time study.
Some courses may last even higher, such as architecture and dentistry (5 years) and medicine (6 years). `The academic year is normally divided into three semesters.
After the First Degree is scheduled for Master Degree or Higher (master’s degree) to complete a study period ie “ Taught courses Research. The study period can vary from nine months to two years. Among the most common titles are achieved after the completion of a Higher Degree consisting of original research are the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD / DPhil).
We report then the Open University, an `organization offering distance courses without prior testing of the entrance and no limitations in the sense that certain qualifications are not required to access the courses.

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