Post-graduate education and university in the United States of America

Higher education in the U.S. (higher education) programs include undergraduate and technical-vocational secondary education (not university level) provided by over 3000 institutions, including colleges and universities (government and private).

Articulation of the academic
The academic year is determined independently by each school, usually begins the first days of September and ends in late May, with a joint in two semesters (term) of 18 weeks each (some universities divide the academic year three or four months). The holidays are at Christmas and in the spring (March to mid April).
Registration can be done in an academic course at the beginning of academic year or the beginning of each term.

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Then there is the opportunity to attend some courses without being enrolled at the university during the summer holidays and winter (so-called summer school or summer session).

Articulation of courses
Higher education has two levels of courses:
– Undergraduate level (first level university education, which corresponds to the first three years of studies in Italy);
– Graduate level or advanced (second and third level of university education, corresponding to postgraduate study in Italy.)
The courses include classroom lessons but also workshops, seminars, practical exercises and homework (identified as research studies) as well as internships and internship. Each course is “weighed” by credits (proportional to the number of hours of teaching – and given individual – that the course provides).
Upon completion of the course you get a score equal to the average of the scores obtained during the university career (known as GPA, grade point average).

Qualifications
Both for undergraduate level courses and for those graduate, securities issued may assume different names, depending on the disciplines of study.
So, if in the humanities the title include the word “Arts” in science will use the term “Science”.
One example: the Masters courses can release the ‘MA – Master of Arts, MS – Master of Science is the title for the master’s degree in science but also an MBA – Masters in Business Administration for the MA in Economics and trade.

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ORGANIZATION OF STUDIES: UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
Several institutions combine to form the American system of higher education: junior colleges, liberal arts colleges (private), universities and state government (in the top positions in the world rankings of universities of excellence).

The first level of higher education is that of undergraduate programs, taught by colleges and universities.
Here each course provides the student fill out and choose to follow the curriculum, which includes compulsory courses (core courses), Specialist subjects of the chosen path (major courses), lessons learned related (lower courses) and optional (elective courses) .
The programs last for 2 or 4 years and issuing the title of “associate degree” (or professional qualification is achieved according to a university or college) and “Bachelor’s degree (academic degree comparable to the degree of new Italian law)

The second level of university education consists of graduate courses, taught at universities.
Among graduate programs, master classes can be of two types: academic and professional.
The first one or last two years (30 or 60 credits) and issue the title of Master of Arts or Master of Science, depending on the discipline of study and allow the registration to PhD and Master’s degree is comparable to the diploma degree in Italy).
The master professional, however, are oriented to accompany students from first degree to the profession itself without offering the student the opportunity to enroll in subsequent doctorate. Fall within the professional masters – for example – the master of business administration (MBA), Master of Social Work (MSW), Master of Education (MED) and the Master of Fine Arts (MFA). Require the completion of a number of credits between 36 and 48. Not always require the possession of a bachelor’s degree.

The third level of higher education is represented by PhDs. Require to carry out studies and research on a wide range of disciplines and conduct an independent and original research project that will culminate with the drafting of a final thesis for publication.
Most doctoral degrees provides a period of 4 or 5 years of study and research after obtaining bachelor’s degree or 2 or 3 years of study and research after the Master’s degree.
The degree awarded is commonly referred to as Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).

The most prestigious universities in the U.S.
The different classifications of the best universities in the world at the first place for prestige and quality the Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Pennsylvania (Wharton), Columbia Business School, Harvard Business School and Stanford University for Business Administration, Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering University of California, Berkeley, John Hopkins University in Baltimore in the field of medical research and the Hauser Global Law School at New York University for the field of international law.

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